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common sports injuries
Foot
Plantar Fasciitis
Bruised Heel
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
Achilles Tendinopathy
Metatarsal Fracture
Bunions
Extensor Tendonitis
Navicular Stress Fracture
location
Painful condition underfoot.  Caused by overuse of Plantar Fascia or arch tendon of the foot.
Bruising on the heel bone or fat pad protecting the bone.  Retrocalcaneal bursa, inflammation of the bursa
Burning pain from arch of foot and toes.
Pain and inflammation, thickening of the Achilles tendon at the rear of the foot/ankle.  The pain usually will strike early in a run (bike), disappear, and then return later.
A break in one of the 5 long bones (metatarsals) between the ankle and toes.
Numbness, swelling and/or tingling in the toes; a pronounced slant to the big toe so the base of the bone sticks out.
Pain on the top of the foot (dorsal foot pain), with swelling on the top of the foot.  Pain is worse during running when the tendons are passively stretched.
Pain/ache in the midfoot region usually linked to exercise
what why how
Symptoms include heel pain especially when pressure to heel applied or along arch.  Painful in the morning (like walking on broken glass) as the Fascia tightens overnight as foot warms up with use the pain is eased.  Plantar Fasciitis is a thick band of tissue running from heel to front of foot.  The cause is normally degeneration of the collagen fibres close to the attachment of the heel (Calcaneus).  Over pronation, tight calf and Achilles muscles, low arch, overloading, and excessive walking and running in unsuitable footwear may trigger symptoms.
Can be caused by impact (heavy landing) or repetitive pounding of heel to ground.  Heel pad is compressed reducing protective cushion.  Sometimes difficult to differentiate from Achilles tendinitis, which is generally felt one ort two inches higher.
The Tibial nerve passes through section called the Tarsal Tunnel from forefoot to back of ankle, pressure is put upon the the nerves (entrapment/compression) which can become inflamed causing Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome.  Sometimes this is due to over pronation when foot rolls as you walk/run.  Symptoms include: Burning sensation on arch of foot, pins and needles or numbness on sole of foot, pain when walking or running, pain more excessive in evening, painful when standing for long periods, when at rest pain subsides.  Some of the causes include: Overpronation, Arthritis, Diabetes, Osteoarthritis at the ankle joint (possibly connected to old injury).
A very common overuse injury that can become chronic and leading to degeneration of the tendon.  The symptoms come on gradually with slight pian in achiles just above the heel bone.  With exercise the pain becomes more sever and develops over days.  Rest helps reduce the pain but area remains tendor to touch and sometimes move.
Fracture to metatarsal is often caused by impact.  The injury at the mid foot reduces the ability tp place weight onto foot.  The symptoms include; Acute pain at the point of trauma, rapid swelling, placing weight onto foot, potential deformity in foot, and bruising during initial stages 12/24 hours
Badly fitting shoes, trainers: they should be half size bigger than your ordinary shoes.
This condition is referred to as any of the following: Extensor Tendonitis; Extensor Tendinitis; Extensor Tendinopathy. These are terms are interchangeable are refer to the same condition, however tendinopathy tends to be the favored term amongst the medical profession.  The muscles affected can be the Tibialis Anterior, Extensor Anterior, Extensor Hallucis Longus, Extensor Hallucis Brevis. Inflammation of the tibialis anterior is most common but inflammation of the extensor digitorum muscles is also possible.  The causes include Overuse, badly fitting shoes or shoes that are laced far too tightly causing pressure on the top of the foot.
It can also be caused by a change in training methods or running terrain, particularly hill running. Running uphill means the extensor muscles must work harder to lift the foot and downhill they have to work harder eccentrically to slow the foot.
Running on icy or slippery surfaces can trigger injury of this nature.
A stress fracture will gradually build up due to overuse and will not always be visible on X-ray.  It's a common sports injury with athletes who sprint, jump or hurdle.  Symptoms include a midfoot pain experienced only when exercising with pain easing off while at rest.  Pain when the thumb is pressed into the top of the foot over the navicular (this is sometimes called the N spot).
An X-ray may or may not show the appearance of a stress fracture therefore a MRI is advised.  
treatment
Rest until pain has gone.  This can be difficult due to nature of injury and required use in daily life.  Taping may help support the foot relieving pain.  Apply ice cold therapy to reduce inflammation.  Gait analysis to determine if you over pronate or over supinate and therefore orthotics can be prescribed.
Rest until pain has gone.  Use heel pad silicone shock absorbers (both should be used to limit compensatory effects).  Replace or have running shoes checked.  Orthotics may be long term option if pain is persistent.  Tape heel.
At acute stage (inflamed/painful) apply cold therapy and rest.  X-Ray, MRI.  Good sports therapist to set rehabilitation program to introduce movement, flexibility, and strength.  An overpronating athlete may wish to consider orthotics.
Treatment includes a mixture of Rest and cold therapy at the onset of injury followed by massage therapy and potential use of ultrasound treatment.  It is worthwhile using heel pads in both shoes to elevate pain and stress on tendon.  It is also worthwhile having running shoes checked to ensure they match foot strike/pattern.
Iciing, orthotics and use of Bunion pads can all help, as can separating the big and second toes with a 1cm thick piece of foam during a run.  Surgery is drastic, but rffective last resort.  It takes 3 months to fully recover from sugery, so unless the pain is sever, you should manage by icing after exercise.
Treatment
Non weight bearing cast 6 weeks.
After 6 weeks the 'N' spot is felt. If it is tender then the cast is re-applied for a further 2 weeks non weight bearing.
exercises
Sports massage techniques to reduce tension in Plantar Fascia and stretch the calf and lower leg muscles. Exercises include use of golf ball, tennis ball or coke can rolled under foot to stretch and reduce pain levels.  If you have access to gym try using leg press "hold weight against foot and flex to foot strike position hold each for up to ten seconds, repeat 3 sets of 10".  Definitive prevention move is TOWEL GRABBING sit on chair, place towel on floor in frobt of you, remove shoes and socks and placr feet hip-width apart on the towel.  Simultaneously curl the toes of both feet to pull towel towards your heels - repeat 3 sets of 30 with 1 or 2 minutes rest.  This develops flexibility and coordination in the foot muscles that run parallel to plantar fascia.
Stretching and strenghtening the achillies tendon is very important for long term rehabilitation and to avoid reoccurrance of injury.  The use of strech bands and cords, toe and heel raises working towards one foot then adding weight  is advised.
Rehabilitation includes;
Mobilization of the stiff ankle joint.
Deep tissue massage especially to the calf muscles.
Strengthening exercises for the ankle and lower leg.
A gradual return to full activity and training over a 6 week period.
Excessive pronation needs to be corrected before full training resumes.
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